Liquidity

The ease with which you may sell an investment or asset at a reasonable price is referred to as liquidity.

Liquid assets are those that can be exchanged for cash:

  • Quickly and easily
  • With little or no transaction fees
  • At their current market prices (i.e., without having to entice a buyer with a big discount)

Something is more liquid in general if:

  • Many individuals would be interested in purchasing it;
  • It’s simple to determine its value;
  • It’s simple to transfer ownership from one person to another;
  • The object or investment is more standardized (i.e., less unique)

A share of Apple stock, for example, is liquid because it’s simple to buy and sell, and many people would want to possess it at the proper price. You can figure out how much it’s worth by looking at the stock market’s current pricing. Furthermore, the corporation has billions of outstanding shares, therefore it isn’t unique.

A piece of custom-designed luxury real estate, on the other hand, is illiquid since there may be only a few potential purchasers, it’s difficult to agree on exactly how much it’s worth, and the transfer procedure can take a long time.

Liquid

  • Stocks
  • Bonds
  • Mutual funds
  • Exchange-traded funds (ETFs)

Illiquid

  • Real estate
  • Art
  • Antiques
  • Collectibles, like coins, stamps, or baseball cards

Because you may easily convert cash into other assets, it is the most liquid asset.
Money market accounts and funds, savings accounts, and various forms of very short-term debt investments are all examples of “cash equivalent” investments. (Certificates of Deposit or CDs are a little less liquid since they lock your money up for a certain length of time and charge a fee if you need to withdraw it early.)

While there’s nothing wrong with retaining illiquid assets, people and businesses both benefit from having some liquidity.

  • For day-to-day needs or unexpected obligations, you’ll need some liquid assets. If your sole asset is a house, selling it immediately for a fair price to fund a car repair would be difficult.
  • Liquidity is required by businesses to fund short-term costs and maintain financial stability. If the company’s revenues are hit hard by a sudden economic downturn, having adequate cash on hand might help it get through it.

Liquidity refers to how quickly and easily an item may be sold for a reasonable price. Stocks, bonds, and ETFs (exchange-traded funds) are all liquid assets that are simple to sell. Real estate and fine art, for example, are illiquid assets that are more difficult to convert into cash. It is critical for both individuals and businesses to have sufficient liquid assets in order to pay short-term payments and cover any unforeseen expenses or financial difficulties.

Key points:

  • Liquidity refers to how quickly and easily an item may be sold for a reasonable price.
  • Although cash is the most liquid asset, equities, bonds, mutual funds, and exchange-traded funds (ETFs) are all considered extremely liquid. Houses, coin collections, and art are all illiquid because finding a buyer willing to pay a fair price takes time.
  • While having some illiquid assets is acceptable, you should balance them out with liquid assets that you can sell quickly if you need cash.
Liquidity text on wood block with a pile of coins on a blue and white background

How SEC regulates stock market?

Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) is independent U.S federal agency that regulates the stock market. It was created in 1934 by Congress to help restore investor confidence after the 1929 stock market crash. The Securities Exchange Act of 1934 was created by Securities and Exchange Commission. It govern securities transaction on the secondary market relying on Securities Act of 1933 which increased transparency in financial  statements and  established  laws against fraudulent activities. In essence SEC provides transparency by ensuring accurate and consistent information about companies that allows investors to make informed and sound decisions. Without transparency stock market would be vulnerable to market speculation and creation of asset bubbles. 


Securities and Exchange Commission has five commissioners and five different divisions:
Division of corporate finance – review corporate filing requirements ensuring that investors have complete and accurate information on company’s financial health that will help them make the best decision.
Division of investment management – regulates investment companies, variable insurance products and federally registered investment advisers. It also oversees The Securities Investor Protection Corporation (SIPC) that insures investment accounts in case that brokerage firm goes bankrupt.
Division of Enforcement – enforces SEC regulations by investigating and prosecuting violations of securities laws and regulations.
Division of Trading and Market – establishes and maintains standards that regulate the stock market. It oversees securities firms and exchanges as well as industry’s self regulatory organizations.
Division of Economic and Risk Analysis – economic data and risk analysis to other division in order to integrate them in the core mission of SEC. This division predicts how proposed rules would affect market.


United States stock market is one of the most regulated markets in the world with high level of transparency which attracts many business to the United States. SEC’s monitoring of exchanges and all organizations connected with selling of securities has a big role in creating such highly regulated market. It is fairly easy to take your company public in the U.S which helps companies grow larger at a faster rate. By conducting research in financial literacy SEC found out that average investor doesn’t poses enough knowledge about the way market and economy function. That is the reason why SEC is so protective of ordinary, non-accredited investors through its regulations. It makes safe for average investor to buy stocks, bonds or mutual funds by regulating sale of those securities and providing investors with information that will help them make investing decisions.

Benefits of IPO

There are various reasons why a company should consider an IPO.

 

Company will gather a significant amount of funds by opening up to the public and allowing shares to be traded in an organized market.

 

Benefits of IPO:

— Financing
— Liquidity
— Recognition
— Institutionalization
— SPOs
— Credibility

Financing
Public offering primarily provide companies the opportunity to obtain capital through a reliable organized, transparent market structure.

 

Liquidity
The shares offered to the public can be bought and sold in a transparent manner at the prices determined according to the market supply and demand at an arbitrary time, liquidity is provided to the shares and an important opportunity is provided to existing shareholders.

 

Global Recognition
Various information about the companies whose shares are traded on the Exchange are constantly being delivered to the foreign investors through global press, data broadcasting and other visual broadcasting organizations within the framework of the transparency of the Exchange and the function of public disclosure.

 

Institutionalization
Being publicly traded adds to a company’s stature as an institution, which can enhance its competitive position.

 

Secondary Offerings
Companies can create financing opportunities not only with the primary public offering but also with “Secondary Public Offerings” according to the resource requirements arising from their investment and similar needs while restricting the pre-emptive rights of existing partners.

 

Credibility
Listing their shares in the Exchange, companies increases their credibility in banking and money market which enables to obtain loans cheaper and easier.

 

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