12 Financial Terms You Should Know

1. Broker
     Someone who’s mastered all the math and financial jargon so you don’t have to. Work with them to create a portfolio that matches your goals.

2. Capital
    What you’re worth. Right now, that might just be $500 in your bank account, but it also includes other wealth (like investments, stocks, bonds…)

3. Capital Appreciation:
    When you sell stocks at a profit, you’re money-literally. Appreciate the appreciation.

4. Certificate of Deposit (CD):
    A fancy alternative to your savings account that pays interest-except you can’t take the money out until a set maturity date.

5. Dividends:
    As companies grow, some share their profits with stockholders in the form of money or more stock.
Dividends aren’t always included though (so read the fine print).

6. Investment Risk:
    Every product, whether it’s stocks in Apple or a carefully invested IRA, could lose you money. It’s about weighing how risky you want to be an accepting the consequences.

7. IRA:
    AKA the “Individual Retirement Account”. You invest in a portfolio during your working years, then live large and travel off of the account in your retirement.

8. Maturity Date:
    Investment jargon for “this is the day you get your investment back with interest”.

9. Mutual Fund:
    Like splitting the tab at dinner with your BBFs, except instead, you’re splitting up an investment (recommended and managed by a savvy broker of course).

10. Portfolio:
      The grand sum of all your investments from CDs to stocks a diverse portfolio is key so mix it up. 

11. Treasury Bills (T-Bills):
      Like stock investments in a company, except that company is your country. How patriotic.

12. Stocks AKA Shares:
      Think of a company like a giant apple pie at your local diner. You can buy a slice (or two, or twenty) depending on your dessert goals. The better the pie, the better the slice. The better the company the better the payoff.

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OTC Markets 15c211 Compliance and exiting the Expert Market

Mina Mar Group (MMG) focused on small-cap issuers quoted on OTC Markets announces the launch of its exit the expert market services.

WEST PALM BEACH, FLORIDA, UNITED STATES, – Mina Mar Group (MMG) minamargroup.com a mergers and acquisitions firm (M&A) focused on small-cap issuers quoted on OTC Markets announces the launch of its exit the expert market services. The services will include and assist small-cap OTC quoted companies demoted to the expert market to rescue its quotation services. This product is ideal for companies that have been targeted for not having the funds or the knowledge on how to remain current with the new OTC markets rules, which were announced and came into effect September 28 202;1 and commenced at about 6 pm EST on September 27 2021 catching many issuers off guard. Mina Mar Group approach is a win-win solution for all parties with the focus on assisting shareholders, stakeholders and investors.

Here is what took place on September 28, 2021 and why many CEO’s are up in arms trying to find a solution to comply with new SEC rules and new OTC markets compliance to comply with such rules:

The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) revised Rule 15c2-11 under the Securities and Exchange Act in September 2020, updating the legal structure and regulatory status of OTC stock markets. Rule 15c2-11 establishes the standards for public quoting in OTC stocks and acts as a regulatory gateway to the public markets. This prompted the downgrade of many companies not in compliance which affected many companies and shareholders simultaneously.

This is why if an OTC issuer’s securities fail to comply with Rule 15c2-11, they will be delisted from the Grey Market. If there are no published quotations for a stock for four trading sessions in a row, this happens automatically. (In the final regulation, an extra condition that the stock is listed on at least 12 days in the prior 30 calendar days was removed.) The Grey Market, dubbed the “penny stock cemetery” by some, has a long history of being very illiquid. Thus making it impossible for investors that purchased shares to liquidate their position.

In many cases, the CEO of a start-up pubco that has been downgraded has limited resources for paying fees that render them compliant opting instead to pay for staff payroll, rent, and supplies. Having said this there are cases of fraud that the SEC is attempting to discourage hence the new rules. At the same time and rightfully so there is a need for transparency that is demanded by investors on these speculative but often profitable stocks.

A Company spokesperson said “While speaking with the leaders of MMG we realized that this well-versed team that proved their expertise in overcoming the critical situations in the public arena for almost two decades has found the perfect solution for the current crisis some of these companies are facing. When companies are downgraded shareholders are indirectly punished by such actions. Mina Mar however has a solution that will mitigate this issue and render these types of companies compliant and out of this grey or expert market position. Companies that fall under the category of grey or expert markets need to move to the OTCQB markets if they wish to continue to be viable companies in the public arena. Mina Mar will assist the right companies that have been downgraded due to lack of funding to meet the regulators demands by funding companies that meet the criteria established by Mina Mar thus providing them with the ability to reach the OTCQB status so that shareholders can invest assisting with the growth of the company and liquidate their position as needed”.

If you are a shareholder stuck with an issuer that was demoted to the “expert market” please feel free to check our free database and the status of many issuers. We will provide further updates on this expansion via our Friday’s Tips email alerts which a reader must subscribe to receive. www.minamargroup.net You may also visit our website www.minamargroup.com if you have been downgraded and need assistance with your company by completing the online form under the Expert Market tab.

How SEC regulates stock market?

Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) is independent U.S federal agency that regulates the stock market. It was created in 1934 by Congress to help restore investor confidence after the 1929 stock market crash. The Securities Exchange Act of 1934 was created by Securities and Exchange Commission. It govern securities transaction on the secondary market relying on Securities Act of 1933 which increased transparency in financial  statements and  established  laws against fraudulent activities. In essence SEC provides transparency by ensuring accurate and consistent information about companies that allows investors to make informed and sound decisions. Without transparency stock market would be vulnerable to market speculation and creation of asset bubbles. 


Securities and Exchange Commission has five commissioners and five different divisions:
Division of corporate finance – review corporate filing requirements ensuring that investors have complete and accurate information on company’s financial health that will help them make the best decision.
Division of investment management – regulates investment companies, variable insurance products and federally registered investment advisers. It also oversees The Securities Investor Protection Corporation (SIPC) that insures investment accounts in case that brokerage firm goes bankrupt.
Division of Enforcement – enforces SEC regulations by investigating and prosecuting violations of securities laws and regulations.
Division of Trading and Market – establishes and maintains standards that regulate the stock market. It oversees securities firms and exchanges as well as industry’s self regulatory organizations.
Division of Economic and Risk Analysis – economic data and risk analysis to other division in order to integrate them in the core mission of SEC. This division predicts how proposed rules would affect market.


United States stock market is one of the most regulated markets in the world with high level of transparency which attracts many business to the United States. SEC’s monitoring of exchanges and all organizations connected with selling of securities has a big role in creating such highly regulated market. It is fairly easy to take your company public in the U.S which helps companies grow larger at a faster rate. By conducting research in financial literacy SEC found out that average investor doesn’t poses enough knowledge about the way market and economy function. That is the reason why SEC is so protective of ordinary, non-accredited investors through its regulations. It makes safe for average investor to buy stocks, bonds or mutual funds by regulating sale of those securities and providing investors with information that will help them make investing decisions.

Corporate Finance

Corporate Finance is about how companies make decisions about what projects to pursue and how to value those projects.

Ratio Analysis

Ratio Analysis is taking two numbers from financial statements and dividing one by the other. What we are doing is taking two pieces of accounting data, put one over the other, and this forms a ratio. We are taking two pieces of data and forming a performance metric. Ratios are usually presented as a percentage or a number depending on whether the usual case is bigger or less than one.

Time value of money

Time is money, literally. If there is a prospect of receiving a certain sum then the sooner you receive it the more it is worth. Interest rates describe this relationship between present value and future value.

Discounting Cash Flows

A company is essentially an entity that generates cash flows each year into the future. The trick is estimating those future cash flows and how much they might grow or shrink and what the risks are to realizing (receiving) them.

Present value and Future value

$100 invested for one year, earning 5% interest, will be worth $105 after one year, therefore $100 paid now and $105 paid exactly one year later both have the same value to a recipient who expects 5% return. That is $100 invested for one year at 5% interest has a future value of $105.

Net Present Value

The way we look at decisions about whether to fund a project or calculate the value of an asset is to turn that stream of future dollars into today’s dollars. Then we compare that sum of present value, we don’t do the deal, if t is less, it is considered a good deal.

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40 Key Stock Trading Terms – For Beginners

1. Buy – Means to take a position or to buy shares in a company.
2. Sell – Getting rid of the shares that you purchased, either because you’ve achieved you want to cut your losses.
3. Bid – Your bid is what you’re willing to pay for a stock.
4. Ask – Ask, on the other hand, is what people selling stocks are looking to get for their shares.
5. Bid-Ask spread – The bid-ask spread is the difference between what people have to spend and what people want to get. The spread must be resolved before the transaction can take place.
6. Bull Market – A bull market is a market condition that means stock prices are expected to rise.
7. Bear Market – A bear market is one in which investors expect stock prices to fall. This is where short sellers shine.
8. Limit Order – A limit order provides instruction to only execute at or under a purchase price or at or above a sale price. Always use limit orders, not market orders.
9. Market Order – A market order provides instruction to execute, as quickly as possible, a transaction at the present, or market price. Don’t use market orders.
10.  Good till cancelled order – A GTC order means that your order stands until you cancel it and it will be executed whenever the stock comes to your price – even if that’s 2-3 weeks down the road.
11. Day Order – Day order means that your order is only good for the day when it’s placed.
12. Volatility – Volatility is simply how fast a stock moves up and down.
13. Liquidity – Liquidity is how easily you can get into and out of a stock.
14. Trading Volume – Trading volume is the number of shares being traded each day – a factor that has huge implications for a stock’s liquidity.
15. Going long – You’re betting that the company’s stock will increase in price so that you can buy low and sell high.
16. Averaging down – This is when an investor buys more of a stock as the price goes down. This results in a decrease of the average price at which the investor purchased the stock.
17. Capitalization – Market capitalization refers to what the market thinks a company’s value is.
18. Public Float – This is the number of shares that can actually trade, once shares that insiders (like the company’s C-suite and early investors) control are subtracted.
19. Authorized shares – This is the total number of shares that a company can trade. It’s always bigger than the public float.
20. IPO – An IPO is an initial public offering which happens when a private company becomes a publicly-traded company, in order to raise money.

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21. Secondary Offering – If a company’s stock is doing well, they may do another offering, in order to sell more stock and raise more money.
22. Blue chip stocks – These are the large industry-leading companies offering stable dividend payments.
23. Forex – Forex or “foreign exchange” – involves trading different currencies.
24. Hedge funds/mutual funds – Hedge funds and mutual funds are two different types of investment accounts that you can buy into. They turn around and invest your money in dozens, hundreds or even thousands of stocks.
25. ETFs – ETFs are exchange traded funds. They’re like stock, because you buy and sell shares but they’re also like mutual funds, because they track an index.
26. ADRs – ADRs are American depository receipts for foreign companies that trade in the US.
27. BETA – A measurement of the relationship between the price of a stock and the movement of the whole market. If stock XYZ has a beta of 1.5 that means that for every 1 point move in the market, stock XYZ moves 1.5 points and vice versa.
28. Broker – A person who buys or sells an investment for you in exchange for a fee.
29. Day Trading – The practice of buying and selling within the same trading day, before the close of the markets on that day.
30. Dividend – This is a portion of a company’s earnings that is paid to shareholders, the people that own that company’s stock, on a quarterly or annual basis.
31. Exchange – An exchange is a place in which different investments are traded. The most well-known in the United States are the New York Stock Exchange and the NASDAQ.
32. Execution – When an order to buy or sell has been completed if you put in an order to sell 100 shares, this means that all 100 shares have been sold.
33. Margin – A margin account lets a person borrow money (take out a loan) from a broker to purchase an investment. The difference between the amount of the loan and the price of the securities is called the margin.
34. Moving Average – A stock’s average price-per-share during a specific period of time. Some time frames are 50 and 200 day moving averages.
35.  Portfolio – A collection of investments owned by an investor.
36. Quote – Information on a stock’s latest trading price. This is sometimes delayed by 20 minutes, unless you are using an actual broker trading platform.
37.  Rally – a rapid increase in the general price level of the market or of the price of an individual stock.
38. Sector – A group of stocks that are in the same business. An example would be the “Technology” sector, including companies like Apple and Microsoft.
39. Stock Symbol – A stock symbol is an arrangement of characters—usually letters—representing publicly-traded securities on an exchange.
40. Yield – This refers to the measure of the return on an investment that is received from the payment of a dividend.