Corporate Finance

What is Corporate Finance?

– Business involves decisions which have financial consequences and any decision that involves the use of money is said to be a corporate finance decision.

– Corporate finance is one of the most important part of the finance domain as whether the organization is big or small they raise and deploy capital in order to survive and grow.

– These are the various roles that corporate finance plays, which are very interesting and challenging, one of the main roles is that of being a finance adviser.

– This can comprise helping to manage investments or even suggesting a mergers and acquisitions (M&A) strategy.

Corporate Finance Principles

Investment Principle:
This principle revolves around the simple concept that businesses have resources which need to be allocated in the most efficient way.

Financing Principle:
The job here for the corporate financier is to make sure that the business has right amount of capital and the right mix of debt, equity and other financial instruments.

Dividend Principle:

So the basic discussion here is that if the excess cash should be left in the business or given away to the investors/owners.

Understanding the concepts

Capital budgeting

Capital budgeting is the process of planning expenditures on assets (fixed assets) whose cash flows are expected to extend beyond one year. Managers study projects and decide which ones to include in the capital budget.

*The “capital” refers to long-term assets.
*The “budget” is a plan which details projected cash inflows and outflows during future period.

Time value of money

If you have a dollar today, you can earn interest on it and have more than a dollar next year. For example, $100 of today’s money invested for one year and earning 8% interest will be worth $108 after one year.

Benefits of Private Equity

Private equity enables companies to better exploit their potential. With the capital that private equity firms and their funds provide, they can drive their development and remain independent.

Raising money for your business through equity finance can have many benefits, including:

  • The funding is committed to your business and your intended projects. Investors only realise their investment if the business is doing well, eg through stock market flotation or a sale to new investors.
  • You will not have to keep up with costs of servicing bank loans or debt finance, allowing you to use the capital for business activities.
  • Outside investors expect the business to deliver value, helping you explore and execute growth ideas.
  • Some business angels and venture capitalists can bring valuable skills, contacts and experience to your business. They can also assist with strategy and key decision making.
  • Like you, investors have a vested interest in the business’ success, ie its growth, profitability and increase in value.
  • Investors are often prepared to provide follow-up funding as the business grows.

 

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The Advantages of Company Mergers

Mergers happen when two businesses join together to create a single, unified company. Business owners may enter into merger negotiations for a variety of reasons, with mergers generally happening between large and small companies. A small, struggling business might become absorbed by a large conglomerate. Two large companies may join forces to become stronger.

The main benefit of mergers to the public are:

1. Economies of scale. This occurs when a larger firm with increased output can reduce average costs. Lower average costs enable lower prices for consumers.

2. International competition. Mergers can help firms deal with the threat of multinationals and compete on an international scale. This is increasingly important in an era of global markets.

3. Mergers may allow greater investment in R&D This is because the new firm will have more profit which can be used to finance risky investment. This can lead to a better quality of goods for consumers.

4. Greater efficiency. Redundancies can be merited if they can be employed more efficiently. It may lead to temporary job losses, but overall productivity should rise.

5. Protect an industry from closing. Mergers may be beneficial in a declining industry where firms are struggling to stay afloat.

6. Diversification. In a conglomerate merger, two firms in different industries merge. Here the benefit could be sharing knowledge which might be applicable to the different industry.

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Mergers and Acquisitions

M&A deal process includes:

 

1.Develop an acquisition strategy — Developing a good acquisition strategy revolves around the acquirer having a clear idea of what they expect to gain from making the acquisition.

 

2. Set the M&A search criteria — Determining the key criteria for identifying potential target companies.

 

3. Search for potential acquisition targets— The acquirer uses their identified search criteria to look for and then evaluate potential target companies.

 

4. Begin acquisition planning — The acquirer makes contact with one or more companies that meet its search criteria and appear to offer good value.

 

5. Perform valuation analysis— Assuming initial contact and conversations go well, the acquirer asks the target company to provide substantial information (current financials, etc.) that will enable the acquirer to further evaluate the target, both as a business on its own and as a suitable acquisition target.

 

6. Negotiations— After producing several valuation models of the target company, the acquirer should have sufficient information to enable it to construct a reasonable offer; Once the initial offer has been presented, the two companies can negotiate terms in more detail

 

7. M&A due diligence — Due diligence is an exhaustive process that begins when the offer has been accepted; due diligence aims to confirm or correct the acquirer’s assessment of the value of the target company by conducting a detailed examination and analysis of every aspect of the target company’s operations — its financial metrics, assets and liabilities, customers, human resources, etc.

 

8. Purchase and sale contracts— Assuming due diligence is completed with no major problems or concerns arising, the next step forward is executing a final contract for sale; the parties will make a final decision on the type of purchase agreement, whether it is to be an asset purchase or share purchase

 

9. Financing strategy for the acquisition — The acquirer will, of course, have explored financing options for the deal earlier, but the details of financing typically come together after the purchase and sale agreement has been signed.

 

10.Closing and integration of the acquisition— The acquisition deal closes, and management teams of the target and acquirer work together on the process of merging the two firms.

 

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investorrelations.mmg@gmail.com

mergers-acquisitions

 

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